This is the sixth part of the DLL Injection series. For your convenience you can find other parts in the table of contents in Part 1 – Registry

In Part 4 we saw how to inject managed DLL and execute some code in default App Domain. Today we will inject some code into different app domains. Actually, this is not tied to DLL injection (because we might want to do this in our application as well).

Listing App Domains

If you check reflection mechanism you will see that it is possible to list all type members (fields, methods, properties), all assembly types, all assemblies of app domain, but there is no simple way to list of app domains of a process. So how do we do it?

We know that .NET exe file can be executed as an ordinary Windows application. This is because it is in fact ordinary application. What it does at start is initializing .NET platform host and loading actual .NET code. We can use this host to list domains. This code does it (.NET 4, it requires COM reference to mscoree.tlb):

public static class CLRUtil
	public static IEnumerable<_AppDomain> EnumAppDomains()
		// Obtain ICLRMetaHost interface
		object objHost;
		int hr = CLRCreateInstance(ref CLSID_CLRMetaHost, ref IID_CLRMetaHost, out objHost);
		if (hr < 0) throw new COMException("Cannot create meta host", hr);
		var host = (ICLRMetaHost)objHost;

		// Obtain ICLRRuntimeInfo interface
		var vers = Environment.Version;
		var versString = string.Format("v{0}.{1}.{2}", vers.Major, vers.Minor, vers.Build);
		var objRuntime = host.GetRuntime(versString, ref IID_CLRRuntimeInfo);
		var runtime = (ICLRRuntimeInfo)objRuntime;
		bool started;
		uint flags;
		runtime.IsStarted(out started, out flags);
		if (!started) throw new COMException("CLR not started??");

		// Obtain legacy ICorRuntimeHost interface and iterate appdomains
		var V2Host = (ICorRuntimeHost)runtime.GetInterface(ref CLSID_CorRuntimeHost, ref IID_CorRuntimeHost);
		IntPtr hDomainEnum;
		V2Host.EnumDomains(out hDomainEnum);
		for (;;)
			_AppDomain domain = null;
			V2Host.NextDomain(hDomainEnum, out domain);
			if (domain == null) break;
			yield return domain;

If we don't want to reference mscoree.tlb, we can use the following code:

 public static class CLRUtil
	public static IList EnumAppDomains()
	    IList _IList = new List();
	    IntPtr enumHandle = IntPtr.Zero;
	    ICorRuntimeHost host = new CorRuntimeHost();
	        host.EnumDomains(out enumHandle);
	        object domain = null;
	        while (true)
	            host.NextDomain(enumHandle, out domain);
	            if (domain == null) break;
	            AppDomain appDomain = (AppDomain)domain;
	        return _IList;
	    catch (Exception e)
	        return null;

	private static Guid CLSID_CLRMetaHost = new Guid(0x9280188d, 0xe8e, 0x4867, 0xb3, 0xc, 0x7f, 0xa8, 0x38, 0x84, 0xe8, 0xde);
	private static Guid IID_CLRMetaHost = new Guid(0xD332DB9E, 0xB9B3, 0x4125, 0x82, 0x07, 0xA1, 0x48, 0x84, 0xF5, 0x32, 0x16);
	private static Guid IID_CLRRuntimeInfo = new Guid(0xBD39D1D2, 0xBA2F, 0x486a, 0x89, 0xB0, 0xB4, 0xB0, 0xCB, 0x46, 0x68, 0x91);
	private static Guid CLSID_CorRuntimeHost = new Guid(0xcb2f6723, 0xab3a, 0x11d2, 0x9c, 0x40, 0x00, 0xc0, 0x4f, 0xa3, 0x0a, 0x3e);
	private static Guid IID_CorRuntimeHost = new Guid(0xcb2f6722, 0xab3a, 0x11d2, 0x9c, 0x40, 0x00, 0xc0, 0x4f, 0xa3, 0x0a, 0x3e);

	private static extern int CLRCreateInstance(ref Guid clsid, ref Guid iid,
		[MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Interface)] out object ptr);

	[ComImport, Guid("D332DB9E-B9B3-4125-8207-A14884F53216"), InterfaceType(ComInterfaceType.InterfaceIsIUnknown)]
	private interface ICLRMetaHost
		[return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Interface)]
		object GetRuntime(string version, ref Guid iid);
		// Rest omitted

	[ComImport, Guid("BD39D1D2-BA2F-486a-89B0-B4B0CB466891"), InterfaceType(ComInterfaceType.InterfaceIsIUnknown)]
	private interface ICLRRuntimeInfo
		void GetVersionString(char[] buffer, int bufferLength);
		void GetRuntimeDirectory(char[] buffer, int bufferLength);
		bool IsLoaded(IntPtr hProcess);
		void LoadErrorString(uint id, char[] buffer, int bufferLength, int lcid);
		void LoadLibrary(string path, out IntPtr hMdodule);
		void GetProcAddress(string name, out IntPtr addr);
		[return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Interface)]
		object GetInterface(ref Guid clsid, ref Guid iid);
		bool IsLoadable();
		void SetDefaultStartupFlags(uint flags, string configFile);
		void GetDefaultStartupFlags(out uint flags, char[] configFile, int configFileLength);
		void BindAsLegacyV2Runtime();
		void IsStarted(out bool started, out uint flags);

	[ComImport, Guid("CB2F6722-AB3A-11d2-9C40-00C04FA30A3E"), InterfaceType(ComInterfaceType.InterfaceIsIUnknown)]
	private interface ICorRuntimeHost
		void CreateLogicalThreadState();
		void DeleteLogicalThreadState();
		void SwitchinLogicalThreadState(IntPtr cookie);
		void SwitchoutLogicalThreadState(out IntPtr cookie);
		void LocksHeldByLogicalThread(out int count);
		void MapFile(IntPtr hFile, out IntPtr address);
		void GetConfiguration(out IntPtr config);
		void Start();
		void Stop();
		void CreateDomain(string name, object identity, out _AppDomain domain);
		void GetDefaultDomain(out _AppDomain domain);
		void EnumDomains(out IntPtr hEnum);
		void NextDomain(IntPtr hEnum, out _AppDomain domain);
		void CloseEnum(IntPtr hEnum);
		// rest omitted

And this allows us to list all domains.

Injecting code

In order to execute code in different app domain, we need to create object there. The simplest way is to do it like this:

foreach (var d in CLRUtil.EnumAppDomains())
	Log("AppDomain " + d.FriendlyName);
		var o = d.CreateInstance(@"MyAssembly, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=null", "MyAssembly.Class1");
		Log("Object in remote app domain created");
	catch (Exception exception)

and now in constructor of Class1 we can do anything we want because we are already in target app domain.